RChain Blog

2021/04/15| AMA:近400年来最重要的算法之一(中文/English)

邀请嘉宾:Lucius Gregory (Greg) Meredith

主持人及收录:光之十一(Shixi)

翻译及补充:莫给机狂(Atticbee)

红包小助理:徐Rose

同步小助手:鸟枪换炮、蓝精灵、L、杨建

Introduction to the Beliefs of RChain

Based on the revolutionary Rho calculus, RChain solves a series of problems preventing blockchain platforms from mainstream adoption. Its fast and scalable conflict detection algorithm accompanied with Casper CBC consensus allows: – all nodes to produce and verify blocks concurrently without global epochs so it becomes the first smart contract platform to achieve single-shard scalability; and – large data to be stored directly on chain, removing the dependency on other data storage solutions such as IPFS. Built on Rho calculus, RChain is the first chain to allow any complicated cross-shard transactions to be verified and finalized atomically and concurrently by all involved shards. This means the cross shard transactions can be done seamlessly and safely just as within a single shard. It will also be equipped with a Rho calculus based behavioural type system. This allows smart contracts to be formally verified quickly in a concurrent and sharded setting, which makes possible the orchestration of large quantities of smart contracts. Its unique reactive smart contract system is more suitable than other chains’ active systems for time sensitive applications such as DeFi. RChain’s unique technology makes it the best candidate to build a functional world computer.

RChain的信念介绍

RChain通过革命性的Rho演算解决了困扰公链发展的诸多难题,使得让通用计算上链第一次成为可能。基于Rho演算的快速冲突检测配合 Casper CBC共识,所有节点可以并发出块达成共识,首次做到了单分片可扩展性,使得大数据可以直接上链不需要借助IPFS。基于Rho演算的分片间同步共识,保证了跨分片合约调用的原子性,让分片间的交互和协作第一次可以无缝进行。基于Rho演算理论的行为类型系统可以完成并发和分片下的快速形式化验证,完成大量链上合约的安全有序编排。其独特的反应式合约比传统的主动式合约更适合高频应用场景如DeFi。RChain的独特技术路线使它成为构建世界电脑的不二之选。

Shixi: Let me introduce myself briefly first. I am 光之十一,you can call me Shixi. I am an early investor in RChain, participated in RChain in September 2017 and have stayed with it until now, and am currently one of the official operation leaders. Tonight our founder Greg and community celebrity Atticbee will be guesting in your community, and I’ll be the host here tonight, and it’s an honor to join you guys in the AMA.

光之十一:我先简单自我介绍一下。我是光之十一,你们可以叫我十一。我是RChain的早期投资者,于2017年的9月参与到了RChain并坚守到了现在,也是目前的官方运营负责人之一。今天晚上我们的创始人Greg和社区名人莫给机狂会做客你们的社区,今晚我也会是这里的主持人,很荣幸和你们一起AMA。

Atticbee: I am a member of the China community of RChain Cooperative, graduated from Zhejiang University and Carnegie Mellon University with a major in computer science, and later settled in the United States and worked in the IT industry for a long time. As a blockchain technology enthusiast, I began to pay attention to RChain’s technology in 2017, had a lot of communications with members of the RChain cooperative, and have been promoting the awareness of RChain’s unique technology in the Chinese community.

莫给机狂:大家好,我叫莫给机狂。简单介绍一下自己。莫给机狂,RChain合作社中国社区成员,毕业于浙江大学和卡耐基梅隆大学计算机专业,后定居于美国,长期在IT业界工作。作为区块链技术爱好者,2017年开始关注RChain的技术,和RChain合作社成员有很多深入交流,并一直在中国社区宣传和推广RChain的独特技术路线。

Shixi:Hi~Good evening my friends. I am the host of today’s AMA, call me Shixi. I am honored to meet with 飞机哥 to hold this AMA in the 星际之门 community, and I am very grateful to the sunflowers of the RChain community who spontaneously sponsored the REV for the community red packet grabbing event! I have heard that this is a high quality, humane, visionary, technically oriented place, and I think that people by groups and I believe that the group is dominated by rational high-end investors like 飞机哥. We have prepared some REVs red packets, which will be interspersed with questions and interactive sessions, please prepare your own REV address to participate in the event.

光之十一:Hi~朋友们晚上好,我是今天AMA的主持人光之十一。很荣幸能和飞机哥相约举办这次的AMA在星际之门社区,亦非常感谢这次自发性赞助REV给社群抢红包活动的日链社区的向日葵们!早闻这是一个高质量,高素质,通人情,有眼光,重技术的地方,想必物以类聚人以群分,相信群友们都是和飞机哥一样都以理性主导的高端投资者们。我们这边也准备了一些REV红包,会穿插投放在提问和互动环节,请自行准备好REV的地址参与活动。

必读!!!RChain的追梦工具大全:

Shixi:Hi, Greg! Welcome to 飞机哥`s 星际之门 community. As we all know, 飞机哥’s community has been around for two years, through bull and bear markets and has recommended several 100x Tokens, it is one of the best even among quality communities. And our RChain has spanned five years of memorable years, with 13000+ code submittimes, surpassing ETH. Last year we released the mainnet and this year’s block merge and sharding are ready to be launched, after that there is the important content of OSLF algorithm and Rho chip, etc., and no shortage of quality dApps such as Dappy and Wanna to continue with the past and open up the future.

光之十一:您好 ,Greg! 欢迎来到飞机哥的星际之门社区。我们都知道,飞机哥的社区已经有两年的历史,穿越牛熊,且诞生过好几个百倍币,即便是在优质社区中也属于佼佼者。而我们的RChain跨越了五年的峥嵘岁月,代码提交数量13000+,超越了以太坊。去年我们发布了主网,今年的块合并和分片更是蓄势待发,后面还有OSLF算法和Rho芯片等等的重磅铺垫和加持,以及不乏Dappy和Wanna等等这样优质的dApps继往开来。

Greg: Thanks very much for inviting me to talk with your community! It’s an honor and a privilege.

格格巫:多谢邀请我和贵社区一起交流,非常荣幸。

Shixi:So next, let’s enter the world of blockchain next generation together and feel the charm of technology synergizing everything.

光之十一:那么接下来,让我们一起进入区块链次世代的世界,感受一下技术协同万物的魅力。

Shixi:Greg, can you start by giving us a brief overview of what RChain is? What is the biggest difference between it and other public chains?

光之十一:Greg,您可以和我们先简单介绍一下什么是RChain吗?它和其他公链最大的区别是什么?

Greg: RChain is designed from inception to be a world computer and database, not merely a payments network. It is designed to run everywhere and nowhere — in the sense that if any one of the nodes in the global computer is shut down anywhere in the world, two more can take its place somewhere else in the world. This kind of platform will enable grassroots self-organization of communities all over the planet, and is essential to the kind of global coordination that will be necessary in the face of climate change.

RChain makes it possible for blockchain to scale from a payments network to a global computer by two improvements on existing blockchain designs: 1) improving the consensus mechanism (in this case from proof-of-work to pure, correct-by-construction proof-of-stake); and 2) improvement in what the consensus is used to store. Ethereum improves on Bitcoin by storing the state of a virtual machine instead of just storing a ledger. RChain improves on Ethereum by storing the state of a concurrentvirtual machine.

Critically, that concurrent virtual machine is correct-by-construction and based on our best model of concurrent computation. Likewise, RChain’s smart contracting language, Rholang, the language used to program the world computer and query and update the world database, is derived from that same model of concurrent computation. Thus, the virtual machine and the programming language are in perfect alignment and compilation or interpretation from one to the other is free from byte code injection attacks.

格格巫:RChain从一开始就被设计来作为一台世界电脑、世界数据库,而不仅仅是一个支付网络。它被设计来可以在任何地方运行——意思就是假如这台全球电脑的任何一个节点在世界某个角落宕机,另一个角落的两个甚至更多的节点可以取代这个节点。这个平台可以让草根的、自组织的社区在这个星球上蓬勃发展。这个平台也对全球协作面对气候变化的挑战也起到至关重要的作用。

RChain让区块链从支付网络变成一个真正的全球电脑变成可能,是因为它对现有的区块链设计做了两个至关重要的改进: 1. 改进共识协议,从工作量证明(Proof-of-work)改进到纯粹的,基于建造的正确的权益证明(proof-of-stake), 2. 改进共识协议存储的对象:以太坊改进了比特币,把共识到账本进化到共识到虚拟机的状态。RChain进一步进化到共识到某个“并发虚拟机”的状态。

关键的是,这个并发虚拟机是基于建造的正确的,基于我们能找到的最佳的并发计算模型建立。同样,RChain的智能合约语言,Rholang,也是从这个最佳的并发计算模型从推导而得,用来对这台世界计算机进行编程,对这台世界数据库进行更新操作。因此,虚拟机和编程语言完美协同,从一边到另一边的编译、解释执行不会被字节码注入攻击。

Shixi: It is worth mentioning that we have joined the Climate Chain Coalition by the United Nations.

光之十一:值得一提的是,我们加入了联合国宣布成立的“气候链联盟”(Climate Chain Coalition)。

莫给机狂:我想补充几点。我喜欢用这个简单的给区块链分代的方式:比特币——区块链1.0 : 共识到某个账本;以太坊——区块链2.0:共识到某个虚拟机的状态;波卡、Near,以太2.0 —— 区块链2.5:共识到一堆无法协作的虚拟机的状态;RChain —— 区块链3.0:共识到计算本身,可无缝组合,可无限扩展。币圈传奇毛路路,也完全同意我的这个给区块链分代的方式。毛总还说,2.5的最尴尬,因为到了3.0, 2.5就没啥事情了。

Atticbee: I want to add a few points. I like to divide the blockchain evolution into several generations:

Bitcoin – Blockchain 1.0: Consensus to a ledger;

Ethereum – Blockchain 2.0: Consensus to the state of a virtual machine;

Polkadot , Near, Ether 2.0, etc – Blockchain 2.5: Consensus to the state of a bunch of isolated virtual machines that cannot collaborate;
RChain – Blockchain 3.0:  Consensus to the calculation itself, can be seamlessly interoperate, and can be scaled infinitely.

Mao Lulu, a legend in the crypto world, also completely agrees with my view of blockchain generations. Mr. Mao also said that generation 2.5 is in the most embarrassing position, because when blockchain 3.0 arrives, 2.5 will suddenly become irrelevant.

光之十一:

image.png

Screenshots of Mao Lulu:

I’m a legend because of my performance, not because of my shilling:

I made tens of millions of dollars on gen 2 – ETH

I made hundrends of millions of dollars on gen 2.5 – PolkaDot

Now I’m investing in gen 3 – REV, I have my patience.

image.png

Screenshots of Mao Lulu:

There is an embarrrasing situation here, that is gen 1.5 & gen 2.5. They are actually not as vital as gen 1 or gen 2.

However, because they were developed later, they don’t belong to them (gen 1&2) either.

Therefore, they generally surves as intermediate solutions.

As long as new generation arrives, those intermedidate solutions will be obsolete.

image.png

Screenshots of Mao Lulu:

NXT/XEM are gen 1.5

BTC/LTC are gen 1

NXT/XEM are gen 1.5

ETH/XTZ are gen 2

DOT/NEAR are gen 2.5

Gen 3 – I only see REV so far

Greg: Yes, that’s a very good way to describe it. One important point: coordination amongst chains is as computationally complex as any chain. It’s Turing complete.

格格巫:对,这是个很好的描述方式。重要一点:在链之间的协作是计算上复杂的,因为这是需要图灵完备的。

Shixi: As the inventor of the Rho calculus and the Rholang language, how do you think they are related to the blockchain and what absolute advantages do they hold?

光之十一:作为Rho演算和Rholang语言的发明者,您觉得它们和区块链有着什么样的联系和占有什么绝对优势?

Greg: Great question! The Rho-calculus makes a small but vital improvement on the pi-calculus. The pi-calculus was our best model of concurrent computation and Robin Milner won the Turing award for its invention. By adding reflection, the Rho-calculus both simplifies the pi-calculus, and at the same time makes the resulting calculus more expressive computationally. This provides the foundation for a model of computation that allows for scaling inside a shard as well as scaling through sharding. Both forms of scaling are facilitated by the same underlying mechanism, namely that all computation occurs through communication over channels (aka names) and conflicts, such as double spend, can be detected as specific patterns of channel use.

The Rho-calculus makes a small but vital improvement on the pi-calculus. The pi-calculus was our best model of concurrent computation and Robin Milner won the Turing award for its invention. By adding reflection, the Rho-calculus both simplifies the pi-calculus, and at the same time makes the resulting calculus more expressive computationally. This provides the foundation for a model of computation that allows for scaling inside a shard as well as scaling through sharding. Both forms of scaling are facilitated by the same underlying mechanism, namely that all computation occurs through communication over channels (aka names) and conflicts, such as double spend, can be detected as specific patterns of channel use.

Essentially, Robin’s insight is that all computation is interaction. Coordination. This relates back to the point about coordination being Turing complete.

格格巫:非常棒的问题!Rho演算对Pi演算做了一个看似细小,然则至关重要的改进。Pi演算是我们拥有的最佳的并发计算模型。Robin Milner因为这个创新赢得了图灵奖。通过加上反射,Rho演算一方面简化了Pi演算,另一方面让得到的演算更具计算上的表达力。这个改进为这样一个区块链计算模型奠定了基础:分片内可扩展性和,以及通过分片的可扩展性两者同时具备。这两种可扩展性都是由同一个底层机制提供的:所有的计算由信道(名字)上的通信进行,并且冲突(例如双花)可以很容易通过信道上的特定使用模式被检测到。

本质上,Robin的洞察在于所有的计算都是交互、协作。所以回到刚才那点:协作本身必须是图灵完备的。

莫给机狂:我再补充几点。现阶段,几乎所有的公链项目都用了图灵机作为计算模型。图灵机体系下,合约执行是一堆指令,指令的执行由虚拟机状态决定,执行完又进一步改变虚拟机状态,指令和状态之间紧耦合,这在并发、分片执行的情况下,非常不好分析。

RChain是选用进程代数,所有的数据、状态都存在于各个信道之中,彼此之间相互隔离。由于Rho演算加了反射,信道又可以由名字进行标记,用名字空间进行组织。 这个优美的解决方案,快刀斩乱麻,一下子解决公链现在的三个痛点:

1. 不能并发执行,导致无法扩展;

2. 即使用分片、跨链,得到的只是一堆各自为战的子链,没法相互间无缝协作;

3. 即使前两个都搞定,试图用快速的形式化验证来保证合约的安全还是座不可逾越的大山。

RChain因为选用了正确的科技树,这三大难题可以轻易解决。最近的快合并已经基本上解决了1。2,3正在路上。等1,2,3都解决,真正能用的世界电脑就出来了,市面上所有的公链项目都会一夜间落伍。这就是为什么我激动的写下一首诗的原因:君不见,雅图G神起草中,长思区块并发功。以太不纳Rho演算,日链由此自称雄。万块齐发似水泄,指挥分片如旋蓬。理论破局威如此,币圈嚣嚣归一统。

俗话说:男怕入错行,女怕嫁错郎,公链项目就怕选错科技树。选了RChain,坐在正确的科技树上,笑看其他的项目在这3堵大墙面前不断碰的头痛血流就行,我们只要等着科技树上的技能点一个个点亮就可以。正如毛露露所说,投资其实很简单,接下来3年他锁仓拿好RChain就行,不需要整天折腾。这部分比较技术,时间有限说的不能太细,如果大家有兴趣,可看看上次我们社区和C网做的AMA的记录: https://www.yuque.com/guangzhishiyi/kgtnbb/oyl6ey

Atticbee: Let me add a few more points. At this stage, almost all public chain projects use Turing machines as their computational models. Under the Turing machine system, contract execution is through a bunch of instructions. The execution of the instructions are determined by the initial state of the virtual machine, and after the execution, the state of the virtual machine will be further changed. The instructions and the states are thus tightly coupled. Therefore it is very difficult to analyze, especially when you try to excucte them concurrently and put organize them into shards.

RChain chooses process calculus instead. All data and states only exist inside their corresponding channels and are isolated from each other. Because Rho calculus adds reflection, channels can be further tagged by names and organized into namespace. This a beautiful solution, and quickly clears the mess and solves the three challenges that all public blockchain platforms face once for all:

1. Can not execute concurrently, thus can not scale;

2. Even if you try to use sharding and multi-chain as to scale, you only get a bunch of isolated shards / side-chains that are doing their own stuff. They can not seamlessly work together;

3. Even if the first two are solved, you still face an extremely difficult problem: fast and economical formal verifications to ensure the security of the contract.

Because RChain chose the right technology tree, the three problems can be solved rather easily. The recent block merge has basically solved 1.

2, 3 is still on the way.

After 1, 2, and 3 are resolved, the first real world computer will be ready to use, and all public chain projects as you see in the market will be outdated overnight. This is the reason why I wrote a poem with excitement:

Oh you can not see: that Greg from Seattle is originally known to nobody.

But he’s spent long time to bring concurrence to block chain.

Ethereum does not adopt Rho calculus, thus RChain started to build its own.

Tens of thousands blocks are being produced concurrently, like a beautiful waterful.

Shards of shards are organized into a single piece, like a whirlpool.

The breakthrough from theoritic side is so remarkable,

That the crypto world will eventually be unified into one.

As the saying goes: men are afraid of getting into the wrong profession, women are afraid of marrying the wrong man, so the public chain projects are afraid of choosing the wrong technology route.

I chose RChain,  and enjoy sitting on the right technology tree, and watch the other public chain projects keep banging their heads against the above 3 walls of tech obstacles, slowly bleeding to death.

All we need to wait for the team to gradually deliver the deliverable tech fruites from the technology tree one by one. As Mao Lulu said, investment is actually very simple. He already locked up his position and is holding RChain for the next 3 years, he doesn’t need to worry about it all day.

This tech part is more technical, and time is limited. If you are interested, you can look at the record of the last AMA done by our community with Citrex: https://www.yuque.com/guangzhishiyi/kgtnbb/pwqr2g

Group members: I would like to know how the underlying technology of your blockchain is extended and how does it carry out distributed storage? And what does your application layer do?

群友:我想知道你们区块链的底层技术是如何扩展的,如何进行分布式存储?还有你们的应用层是怎么做的?

Greg: The main way to extend it is to write smart contracts in Rholang. If you want to add pre-existing libraries to Rholang, you can do that through SCala. Distributed storage is a great question! First, each node has a local copy of RSpace. This is a variant of Gelernter’s Linda Tuplespace. The consensus mechanism ensures that all local copies of RSpace are in agreement. Rholang offers transactional query. That is, you can search RSpace for data that matches a pattern, and you can lock data, and you can update data. The transactional model using channels is consistent with object capabilities and so provides a security model not easily found in either SQL or NoSQL.

格格巫:主要的扩展方式就是用Rholang来写智能合约。如果你想要把现有的库加到Rholang上,你可以通过SCala做到这点。分布式存储是个非常棒的问题!首先,每个节点都有一个本地的RSpace的拷贝,这是Gelenter的Linda元组空间的一个变种。共识机制保证了RSpace在所有节点的本地拷贝上都是一致的。Rholang提供了事务上的查询。就是说,你可以查询RSpace,找出满足特定模式的数据,然后你可以锁定并且更新这个数据。这个使用信道的事务模型,和OCAP(对象能力模型)是一致的,所以也提供了一个非常好的安全模型,这个在SQL和NonSQL上是找不到的。

莫给机狂:RSpace是RChain运行的状态空间,可以想象成这台世界电脑的内存。

Shixi: Many people in the community have heard about RChain for a long time, and during the five years we have experienced black swans, betrayal and slander. We’ve seen many of the founders of the project start their other businesses or run off without a trace. What has kept you going so far, without fear of the speech of man or hardship?

光之十一:社区很多人都早闻RChain,这一路五年下来,我们经历过黑天鹅,经历过背叛和诽谤。纵观很多项目的创始人早已另起炉灶或者跑路无踪,是什么支撑着你无惧人言,无谓艰辛,不屈不挠地坚持到了现在?

Greg: Excellent question! My persistence and the persistence of the team that is actually responsible for delivering the technology comes from our shared understanding that this project is focused on delivering vital coordination technology that will be essential to the survival of humanity. Climate change is an existential threat. As Bill Gates recently pointed out, addressing it will require a higher level of global coordination than was seen during the world wars. We cannot achieve that kind of coordination without fundamental improvements in our telecommunications infrastructure. In particular, that infrastructure has to be decentralized to be robust against a number of physical infrastructure interruptions. Blockchain is essential to the decentralization of our global  telecommunications infrastructure. Currently, i have seen no other designs for blockchain that scales both vertically and horizontally. If i had, i might have been working to support those projects instead of working on RChain. RChain fills a critical gap in a desperate race against time. The team that has persisted has persisted because we are awake to this and are not distracted by common distractions like accumulating capital or lambos and cigars! 🙂

格格巫:非常好的问题!我和团队的坚持不懈,致力于把这个技术变成现实,这来自于我们对项目的共同理解: 这个项目的目标是做出一个对人类生死存亡具有重大意义的协作技术。气候变化是一个生存威胁。比尔盖茨最近指出,解决这个问题需要比在世界大战中见到的更加高一级的全球协作。如果我们不对我们的通信基础设施加以根本上的改进,是做不到这种级别的协同的。尤其是,这个基础设施必须是去中心化的,这样在一些物理设备服务中断的时候系统还是健壮的。区块链对全球通信基础设施去中心化至关重要。现在,我还没见到任何一个项目可以同时达到水平和垂直的扩展。如果真的有这样的项目,那我就不在RChain工作了,会转而支持他们去。RChain在我们和时间的赛跑中填补了这个关键的空白。团队能不断坚持下来,因为我们对这个使命非常清醒,不会浪费时间去做割韭菜、买兰博基尼或者抽雪茄这类俗事:-)

Shixi: What is the focus and roadmap of the current RChain development mission?

光之十一:目前RChain开发任务的重点和路线图是什么?

Greg: Also an important question! We are focused on getting to a robust community of external Validators. This means making sure block merge is complete and we have addressed any issues in the PoS contract. Additionally, we are pursuing cost effective hardware acceleration paths that will make it possible for ordinary folks to purchase hardware solutions they can run under their desk that give massive performance acceleration. This will not only aid in creating a healthy Validator community, but also foster decentralization as it will mean that it’s not necessary to provision nodes on cloud providers like AWS, or Alicloud.

格格巫:又一个很重要的问题!我们的工作重心在建立一个健壮的外部节点社区。这意味着需要保证块合并完成,然后PoS合约的问题都被解决。另外,我们也在研究硬件加速的技术路线,这个技术将可以让普通人可以购买专用的硬件解决方案,它们可以在你办公桌的底下运行,提供巨大的性能加速。这不光可以帮助建立一个健康的验证节点社区,也可以大大提高去中性化水平:我们不再需要在云服务提供商,比如亚马逊云、阿里云上部署节点了。

Shixi: Operational Semantics in Logical Form(Click to Jump) I heard you say that OSLF is one of the most important algorithms in 400 years and many people are interested in it. Can you tell us more about the innovation of the OSLF algorithm you pioneered?

光之十一:OSLF (Operational Semantics in Logical Form)证明理论的算法草案点击跳转,听闻您说过OSLF是四百年来最重要的算法之一,很多人都对此感兴趣,可以具体聊聊您开创的OSLF算法有什么样的革新吗?

Greg: Thanks for this question! I appreciate the opportunity to talk about this line of work. I just want to say that OSLF is a product of a community of mathematicians and computer scientists going all the way back to Samson Abramsky’s Domain Theory in Logical Form. It’s not the product of any one person. That said, OSLF enables searching existing databases with new kinds of queries that probe the information already stored, but probe it on the basis of structure and behavior. Thus, existing biological databases containing information about cell signaling pathways can be searched with queries like: find all the small molecules in this repository of small molecules such that when added to this cell pathway in concentrations no greater than K will prevent the pathway from reaching some designated state. The English translation of that query is: find a cure. There are similar queries for protein folding and airplane manufacturing and code repositories as well as self-driving automotives. The algorithm changes every aspect of the built environment and gives machine learning a serious competitor because it comes with explanations for its conclusions, which ML lacks.

格格巫:多谢提这个问题!感谢提供这个机会让我谈谈这条线(OSLF)上的工作。我只想说OSLF是一个数学家和计算机科学家的联合社区的共同成果,渊源于Samson Abramsky所开创的“逻辑形式的域理论”。这不是一个人的成果。OSLF可以让你用全新的查询方式去查询现有数据库中已经有的数据,而且可以基于数据的结构和行为进行查询。这样,现有的保存细胞信号途径生物数据库可以用新的方式搜索,例如:在这个小分子数据库里找出所有的满足这个条件的小分子——当把它加入到这个这个细胞途径里,而且浓度小于某个阈值K的时候,会阻止这个途径达到某种状态。用白话来说就是:找出解药。类似的查询也可以用在研究蛋白质折叠、飞机制造、软件代码库、自动驾驶等各种方面。这个算法会改变所有的建造环境,还会给机器学习带来严重的挑战,因为它搜索出的结果还附带了解释,这种解释是机器学习所缺乏的。

光之十一:关于OSLF的更多信息,感兴趣的可以参照一下这篇文章。数学家Greg会吹牛逼吗?(点击跳转)

Group members:The algorithm design model is good. So how is your algorithm optimized? About OSLF.

群友:这个算法设计模型非常好,那你的算法怎么优化?关于OSLF。

Greg: Remember, this phase of the work is to make sure that the math checks out and the mathematical community agrees. Once that is at a certain level of completion, then we begin the implementation. Currently, our sense is to implement from the ground up, instead of reusing an existing framework like K-framework. Optimization comes from two sources: the maths and information about the hardware targets. We won’t be really ready to optimize for at least several months. However, in many cases optimization can occur by mapping our query model to the local query model in the repository we are absorbing.

格格巫:记住,现阶段的工作是确保数学部分是正确的,然后数学社区也认可我们的做法。一旦我们完成了一定层度以后,我们就会开始实现。现今,我们的意见是从最底层开始,而不是用现有的框架比如K-Framework。优化来自两点:数学,以及硬件目标的信息。我们不会在几个月内真正开始优化。然而,在很多时候,优化可以通过映射我们的查询模型到使用的本地代码库的查询模型来进行。

Shixi: How is the OSLF progressing at the moment? When will you probably be able to finish it?

光之十一:当下OSLF的进度如何了?您大概什么时候能完成它?

Greg: Very well! Mike and Christian have a categorical model of a significant portion of it and we have a naive model of the rest of it. Please watch the Casper Standup session for 12 April to see the most recent progress.

格格巫:非常好!Mike和Christian在范畴论模型方面做了非常大一部分工作,我们有个简单的模型做了剩下的工作。请看四月12号的Casper Standup来看最近的进展。

莫给机狂:Casper Standup是RChain合作社的一系列技术方面的专题讲座,Youtube(点击跳转)上有。

Shixi: NFT is a hot concept right now, and many people want to know, do we have plans in this area?

光之十一:NFT是当下很火的概念,不少人想知道,我们有在这方面的计划吗?

Greg: Yes! We are already working with musicians who want to develop NFT offerings on RChain+Dappy. i can’t say more until these musicians launch. i can say there is a startup that is also focused on using RChain to develop an NFT solution for artists in general.

格格巫:是!我们已经和一个音乐家在一起合作在RChain+Dappy上发行NFT。但是在这个音乐家正式发行NFT之前,现在我还不能说太多。我能说的就是现在有一个初创公司,准备用RChain来开发一个NFT为艺术家服务。

Shixi: As one of the most compliant projects in the cryptocurrency scene, what can compliance bring to RChain’s prospects? Do you think it’s worth it?

光之十一:作为加密货币圈子最合规的项目之一,合规能给RChain的前景带来什么?您觉得值得吗?

Greg: Ultimately, we must create real bridges between blockchain and the existing legal and sociopolitical infrastructure. The least costly way to do this is to be compliant from inception. If you compare our legal bills to say Telegram’s i think you will see what i mean. It is always important to be ready and willing to ask for forgiveness instead of permission but it’s equally important know the path of least resistance. Being compliant sets us up for accelerated engagement with legislators and regulators when it comes to the next scaling phase.

格格巫:最终,我们需要在区块链和现有的法律和社会政治基础设施之间建立一座桥梁。代价最低的方式是从一开始就合规。你比较一下Telegram和我们的法律成本,你就能明白我说的是什么意思。准备好做大之后要求有关机构给予谅解而不是一开始就取得许可,这样做确实是可以,但同样重要的是找到阻力最小的解决问题的方式。从一开始就合规,可以加快和立法、监管机构之间的沟通,从而让项目快速铺开。

Shixi: Will you guard RChain forever?

光之十一:您会永远守护RChain吗?

Greg: In spirit, yes. But, eventually my body will die. Before that time i expect many younger people will have developed a much better and clearer picture of the vision we can only see dimly right now and they will as a community do a much better job than i have. It will be my honor and privilege to help this new generation learn what i have learned. In this way it is possible for RChain to persist across the generations.

格格巫:从精神上来说,是的。但是,最终我的肉体会死去。但在此之前,我预期很多年轻人将会做出一个更好的、更清晰的规划,我们现在看到的仅仅是个模模糊糊的雏形。这些年轻人作为一个社区,肯定会比我一个人做的更好。我很荣幸可以帮助下一代学习我所学过的一切,只有这样,RChain才能代代传承下去。

Shixi: Next, we have some time left for the free question session, welcome friends to ask questions now, we will randomly selected questions to answer, thank you!

光之十一:接下来,我们还有一些时间留给了自由提问的环节,现在欢迎朋友们发问,我们会随机抽选问题进行解答,谢谢!

群友:msak不也是3.0?

Group Members: I heard msak is also (blockchain) 3.0.

莫给机狂:3.0必须有几个条件:无限可扩展,分片之间无缝互操作,廉价快速的形式验证。

Atticbee: 3.0 has several prerequisites: infinitely scalable; seamless cooperation among shards; cheap and fast formal verification.

群友:公链最重要的就是生态的发展了,日链在这方面有什么措施呢?

Group Members: The ecosystem is the most important to a public chain. How is RChain in this front?

莫给机狂:RChain是DeFi的最佳选择:无缝互操作性,快速形式验证的杀手锏,以及反应式合约。

Atticbee: RChain is the best choice for DeFi – seamless interoperation, fast formal verification is a killer, also a reactive smart contract system.

群友:日链和蒂芙尼最大的区别是什么呢?

Group Members: What’s the biggest difference between RChain and Dfinity?

莫给机狂:达芙妮虽然号称世界电脑,其实并不是。VRF没办法并发,分片之间的交易不是原子的。

Atticbee: Dfinity claims they are a world computer, but actually not. They cannot do concurrency, and their cross-shard TXs are not atomic.

群友:2pc可以实现原子交易。

Group Members: 2pc (2 stage commit?) can do atomic TXs.

莫给机狂:原子交易需要两个分片的出块节点协同,要不都通过要不都通不过。VRF下分片的出块节点间没法协同,只能分阶段。只要分了阶段,就割裂了交易的原子性,你的协议会巨复杂。以太坊也面临同样的问题。

Atticbee: Atomic (cross shard) TXs requires coordinations between two shards’ block producers – either approve these TXs all together all disapprove. Under VRF consensus, block producers from two shards find no ways to coordinate together, so they have to approve (cross shard) TXs in multi-stages. As long as you do TXs in multi stages, you compromised the atomicity. Your protocol will be super complicated. Ethereum is facing the same challenge.

Group members: Is there any capital support behind the project?

群友:这个项目有资金支持吗?

Greg: The project has excellent financial support from the community.

格格巫:项目得到了社区的强大资金支持。

群友:后续会慢慢上所吗?

Greg: We will pursue listing on exchanges after we have a healthy external Validator community.

格格巫:等我们有了一个健壮的外部节点社区,我们会寻求上头部交易所。

Shixi: Our external node opening is expected in Q2~Q3 of this year.

光之十一:我们的外部节点开放预计在今年的Q2~Q3。

群友:有没有项目在做测试?可以体验一下吗?

Group Members: Are there any dApp projects on testing now? Can we try them?

光之十一:我们已经有一些优质dApps已经做出来或者正在开发中,诸如新冠护照,链盘,Wanna等等,还有Dappy(点击跳转)。Dappy + RChain testnet session, FT, NFT, dappy name system etc. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NFJVZGbTl2w&t=2s

Shixi: Yes we have a bunch of excellent dApps either developed or is being developed. For example, COVID passport, storage on RChain, Wanna, and also Dappy. Dappy + RChain testnet session, FT, NFT, dappy name system etc. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NFJVZGbTl2w&t=2s

群友:日链以后会考虑像币安链那样做大生态吗?比如做去中心化交易所,做预言机,保险,借贷等等。

Greg: Here is one climate application: decentralized smart power grid. Note that we have the technology with solar, battery, and blockchain to make this happen. However, in almost every jurisdiction there is a regulatory hurdle to overcome. Cooperative power companies have regulatory advantages that let us get over the hurdles to building smart power grids. This will be important as much of the power infrastructure is going to be impacted by climate change. Decentralizing it makes it reconfigurable.

格格巫:有个气候上的应用:去中心化电网。我们有太阳能,电池和区块链让这个(去中心化电网)完成。在几乎所有的国家,都有一些监管的障碍需要被克服。在美国,很多电力公司是合作社的组织形式!因为RChain也是个合作社,我们可以和他们一起协作,通过彼此的组织架构、价值和目标。合作社形式的电力公司有合规上的优势,让我们在建造智能电网方面克服很多监管上的问题。这个非常重要因为电力基础设施会由气候变化影响。

光之十一:Thank you soooo much! 让我们谢谢Greg,我们AMA开始的时间是他那边的凌晨六点,真的很不容易,每天从凌晨工作到半夜。

群友:大神一般都忘我的工作。

Atticbee: @Lucius Gregory Meredith Thank you for your excellent explainations!

莫给机狂:谢谢你出色的解释!

Greg: Thank you and Atticbee and everyone for coming! Thank you all! i believe we can build a community that will be able to find right relationship to our Mother Earth.

格格巫:谢谢你和莫给机狂和所有来到这里的人 !谢谢大家!我相信我们可以创建一个能够真正实现地球村的社区。

Group Member: What’s the difference between RChain and Avalanche?

群友:日链和雪崩协议的区别是什么啊?

Atticbee: Avalanche has a major theoretical flaw : hostile attackers can easily freeze the whole network’s liveness (thanks Mao Lulu’s explaination on this matter).

莫给机狂:雪崩协议本身有严重的理论问题,面对恶意攻击可以把活性完全锁死。

Group Member: So RChain is really blockchain 3.0?

群友:日链是属于区块链3.0?

Atticbee: Well it depends how you define blockchain 3.0. Some even claim they are gen 4.0. In my view, gen 3.0 has to satisfy 3 prerequisites: infinitely scalable; seamless interoperability among shards & chains; fast formal verification. If you claim you are 3.0, check if you satisfy all of them.

莫给机狂:看你怎么定义区块链3.0 。还有说自己是4.0的呢。我觉得3.0必须满足那三个条件:无限可扩展,分片、链间无缝互操作,快速形式化验证。说自己是3.0的,这三点拿出来溜溜就行。

Group Member: So RChain is not afraid of hostile attack?

群友:日链就不怕恶意攻击?

Atticbee: The safety of Casper CBC has already been formally verified.

莫给机狂:Casper CBC的安全性是形式化证明过的。

Group Member: Casper Labs, the project listed on coinlist, did it copy from RChain?

群友:Coinlist上募资的那个Casper Labs是抄袭RChain的吗?

Shixi: Yes they forked from RChain’s code. But they dropped Rho calculus and Rholang. Because they can not handle them. Rho calculus is invented by our founder, and it is the best part.

光之十一:是抄袭的,fork了我们的代码,但是砍掉了Rho演算,还有Rholang。他们不会,Rho演算是我们创始人发明的,也是精髓。

Atticbee: Casper Labs only copied the consensus layer and dropped the best part – Rho calculus. Because they are not able to develop this part. Please read my novel:  “Casper Labs only learned half of RChain’s Gong Fu”.
I have a joke – Greg’s martial art consists of 3 parts. Part 1 – the Qi : the execution sematics; Part 2 – the moves: the consensus protocol; and finally the Zen: formal verification.

Here Casper CBC is the moves, Rho calculus is the Qi and OSLF is the Zen.

莫给机狂:CasperLabs只抄了RChain的共识协议部分。精华的Rho演算没抄,也抄不了。请看小说:《笑看Casber Labs只练半本九阴真经的下场》(点击跳转)。Greg教神功,分为上册、下册、总诀。上册是内力(执行语义),下册是剑招(共识协议),总诀是佛法(形式验证)。剑招是Casper CBC,内力是Rho演算,佛法是OSLF。

Group Member: Haha, they didn’t copy the best part.

群友:哈哈,没抄到精髓啊,太弱了。

Atticbee: Yeah, because the Qi is more difficult to master than the moves.

莫给机狂:内力难练啊。

Group Member: How does NDN’s content based addressing compare to RChain?

群友:NDN的内容寻址和你们的算法有可比性吗?

Atticbee: Not sure about this project. OSLF’s algorithm can potentially query by the codes’ behaviors, not by keywords. For example, if your function that does sort doesn’t have “sort” as key word, it cannot be found on Github. But OSLF can do that.

There are so many projects in the market and you can not cover all of them. But 99% of them have almost zero innovations. The rest, even though they have some innovations, they are not sounded under scrutiny.

Mao Lulu studied many of those projects, and he couldn’t find a competitor of RChain, so he returned to our community and continued to invest.

In Mao’s group, we have many blockchain enthusists dicussing blockchain projects every day.

莫给机狂:这个项目不清楚。OSLF的算法是可以进行对代码行为的查找,而不仅仅是关键词。比如“把所有排序算法找出来”。如果你的排序算法的函数名字没有“排序”这个关键词,你在Github上是搜索不出来的,但OSLF可以。项目太多,看不过来。不过99%以上的项目没有啥原创的东东。剩下的,即使有原创,但经不起推敲。毛路路在外面转了一圈,没见到可以和RChain相提并论的项目,只好又回来了。以前毛路路的群,大家整天评论各种公链项目。

Dimworm: The so called address by contents, is just a hash of the contents, there is no real tech breakthough.

愁虫:所谓内容寻址,无非是把内容hash一下作为地址,没什么技术含量。

Juju:可以对项目的发展情况保持关注,RChain这个公链项目确实是很不错的。但买不买,买多少,什么时候买建议多研究再判断,投资对自己负责。

Group Member: Every project has technology superior  to BTC.

群友:现在什么币的技术不比BTC牛逼?

Shixi: Bitcoin only has the functionality of balances transfers, only that it has the strongest consensus. It is not comparable.

光之十一:比特币就个转账功能而已。只是共识强,没什么可比性的。

Atticbee: Bitcoin’s position is store of value. At this stage, it has already achieved this functionality.

However the public blockchains are in an awkward situation. Their position is to let the main street to use them. However the 3 tech obstacles – scalability, interoperability, formal verification, keeps them from mainstreet adoption.

Suppose one day, one project can solve all 3 obstacles, and let a world computer be available to billions of people, then Bitcoin’s store of value position will be seriously challenged. Since the “fuel” of the world computer has a natual store of value function; and since it has the anchor of value as “fuel of world computer”, it is more suitable to be used as a reserve currency.

The above is only my view. Disclaimer – I hold both BTC and REV. But I’m only bullish on BTC for the next 10 years. After 10 years I’ll gradually exchange my BTC into real gold, since gold has no competitors, but BTC has, and many. However I’ll keep the “fuel tokens for the world computer”, since this application has an extremely strong network effect. Just like internet, when the system is established, it can not be replaced easily.

莫给机狂:比特币的定位就是储值,现阶段它已经完美实现了这个功能。但公链现在很尴尬,他的定位是让大家用。但可扩展性、互操作性、形式验证这三座大山在面前挡着,一直没办法让公链真正的实用化。当然万一哪个项目把这三个大山都搬走了,让全世界几十亿人都有一台世界计算机用,那比特币的地位就很尴尬了,因为这台世界计算机上的燃料代币自带储值功能,而且因为有“世界计算机燃料”这个价值锚点,会比比特币更适合作为储备货币。上述只是我的观点。大饼,REV我都有。BTC我只看好10年,10年以后我肯定都换成真正的黄金,因为黄金没有可替代品,但大饼有,而且还有很多。但“世界计算机上的燃料代币”,我不会换掉,这个有超强的网络效应,跟互联网一样,一旦有了就很难被淘汰。

END。

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