邀请嘉宾：Lucius Gregory (Greg) Meredith、Tomislav 主持⼈，翻译及收录：光之⼗⼀（Shixi）
Introduction to the Beliefs of RChain
Based on the revolutionary Rho calculus, RChain solves a series of problems preventing blockchain platforms from mainstream adoption. Its fast and scalable conflict detection algorithm accompanied with Casper CBC consensus allows: – all nodes to produce and verify blocks concurrently without global epochs so it becomes the first smart contract platform to achieve single-shard scalability; and – large data to be stored directly on chain, removing the dependency on other data storage solutions such as IPFS. Built on Rho calculus, RChain is the first chain to allow any complicated cross-shard transactions to be verified and finalized atomically and concurrently by all involved shards. This means the cross shard transactions can be done seamlessly and safely just as within a single shard. It will also be equipped with a Rho calculus based behavioural type system. This allows smart contracts to be formally verified quickly in a concurrent and sharded setting, which makes possible the orchestration of large quantities of smart contracts. Its unique reactive smart contract system is more suitable than other chains’ active systems for time sensitive applications such as DeFi. RChain’s unique technology makes it the best candidate to build a functional world computer.
RChain通过⾰命性的Rho演算解决了困扰公链发展的诸多难题，使得让通⽤计算上链第⼀次 成为可能。基于Rho演算的快速冲突检测配合 Casper CBC共识，所有节点可以并发出块达 成共识，⾸次做到了单分⽚可扩展性，使得⼤数据可以直接上链不需要借助IPFS。基于Rho演 算的分⽚间同步共识，保证了跨分⽚合约调⽤的原⼦性，让分⽚间的交互和协作第⼀次可以⽆ 缝进⾏。基于Rho演算理论的⾏为类型系统可以完成并发和分⽚下的快速形式化验证，完成⼤ 量链上合约的安全有序编排。其独特的反应式合约⽐传统的主动式合约更适合⾼频应⽤场景如 DeFi。RChain的独特技术路线使它成为构建世界电脑的不⼆之选。
Shixi: Let me introduce myself briefly first. I am 光之⼗⼀，you can call me Shixi. I am an early investor in RChain, participated in RChain in September 2017 and have stayed with it until now, and am currently one of the official operation leaders. As we all know, RChain has spanned five years of memorable years, with 13000+ code submit times, surpassing ETH. Last year we released the mainnet and this year’s block merge and sharding are ready to be launched, after that there is the important content of OSLF algorithm and Rho chip, etc., and no shortage of quality dApps such as Dappy and Wanna to continue with the past and open up the future. Tonight our founder Greg and star developer and community celebrity Atticbee will be guesting in your community, and I’ll be the host here, and it’s an honor to join you guys in the AMA.
光之⼗⼀：我先简单⾃我介绍⼀下。我是光之⼗⼀，你们可以叫我⼗⼀。我是RChain的早期 投资者，于2017年的9⽉参与到了RChain并坚守到了现在，也是⽬前的官⽅运营负责⼈之 ⼀。我们都知道，RChain跨越了五年的峥嵘岁⽉，代码提交数量13000+，超越了以太坊。去 年我们发布了主⽹，今年的块合并和分⽚更是蓄势待发，后⾯还有OSLF算法和Rho芯⽚等等 的重磅铺垫和加持，以及不乏Dappy和Wanna等等这样优质的dApps继往开来。今天晚上我 们的创始⼈Greg、明星开发⼈员Tomislav和社区名⼈莫给机狂会做客你们的社区，我会是这 ⾥的主持⼈，很荣幸和你们⼀起AMA。
Atticbee: I am a member of the China community of RChain Cooperative, graduated from Zhejiang University and Carnegie Mellon University with a major in computer science, and later settled in the United States and worked in the IT industry for a long time. As a blockchain technology enthusiast, I began to pay attention to RChain’s technology in 2017, had a lot of communications with members of the RChain cooperative, and have been promoting the awareness of RChain’s unique technology in the Chinese community.
莫给机狂：⼤家好，我叫莫给机狂。简单介绍⼀下⾃⼰。莫给机狂，RChain合作社中国社区 成员，毕业于浙江⼤学和卡耐基梅隆⼤学计算机专业，后定居于美国，⻓期在IT业界⼯作。作 为区块链技术爱好者，2017年开始关注RChain的技术，和RChain合作社成员有很多深⼊交 流，并⼀直在中国社区宣传和推⼴RChain的独特技术路线。
Greg: Thank you! It’s an honor and a privilege to be here!
Tomislav: Hi Shixi and everyone!
Shixi：Hi~Good evening my friends. I am the host of today’s AMA, call me Shixi. I am honored to meet with 四书 to hold this AMA in the ⼤@家族 community, and I am very grateful to the sunflowers of the RChain community who spontaneously sponsored the REV for the community red packet grabbing event! I have heard that this is a high quality, humane, visionary, technically oriented place, and I think that people by groups and I believe that the group is dominated by rational high-end investors like 四 书 . We have prepared some REVs red packets, which will be interspersed with questions and interactive sessions, please prepare your own REV address to participate in the event.
光之⼗⼀：Hi~朋友们晚上好，我是今天AMA的主持⼈光之⼗⼀，你们可以叫我⼗⼀。我感到 很荣幸能和四书相约举办这次的AMA在⼤@家族社区，亦⾮常感谢这次⾃发性赞助REV给社群 抢红包活动的⽇链社区的向⽇葵们！早闻这是⼀个⾼质量，⾼素质，通⼈情，有眼光，重技术 的地⽅，想必物以类聚⼈以群分，相信群友们和四书⼀样都是以理性主导的⾼端投资者们。我 们这边也准备了⼀些REV红包，会穿插投放在提问和互动环节，请⾃⾏准备好REV的地址参与 活动。
Shixi ： Hi, Greg! Welcome to 四 书 `s ⼤ @ 家 族 community. can you talk about how long RChain has been around? What was your motivation for starting RChain?
光之⼗⼀：您好 ，Greg! 欢迎来到四书的⼤@家族社区。您可以聊⼀聊RChain有多久的历史 了吗？您创⽴RChain的动机是什么？
Greg: RChain was founded in 2017. But, in many respects it has been around much longer. The first generation of the technology that was commercially deployed was Microsoft’s BizTalk Process Orchestration. We provided the first Internet scale definition and commercial implementation of smart contract back in 2000. Microsoft did not understand the true nature of the idea. Decentralization took another 20 years for the market to recognize as vital. But all during this time the vision was a decentralized coordination platform to support global coordination. We need a global decentralized world computer to help us address the coordination problems of climate change. That is the core vision of RChain.
格格巫：RChain成⽴于2017年。但是，在许多⽅⾯，它存在的时间要⻓得多。第⼀代被商业 化部署的技术是微软的BizTalk流程协调系统。我们早在2000年就提供了第⼀个互联⽹规模的 智能合约的定义和商业实施，微软并不了解这个想法的真正本质。去中性化运动花了20年时 间，才让市场认识到它的重要性。但在这期间，所有的愿景都是建⽴⼀个去中⼼化的协作平台 来⽀持全球协作。我们需要⼀个全球去中⼼化的世界计算机来帮助我们解决⽓候变化的协调问 题，这是RChain的核⼼愿景。
Atticbee: Greg is the Chief Architect of BizTalk at Microsoft.
Shixi: BizTalk is also a flagship enterprise application from Microsoft, serving tens of thousands of businesses.
光之⼗⼀：BizTalk也是微软的⼀个旗舰级企业应⽤，服务上万家企业。 Shixi: In terms of technology, what features have we accomplished? 光之⼗⼀：在技术⽅⾯，我们已经实现了哪些特性？
Tomislav: We have running Rholang on-chain with consensus protocol. 托⽶斯拉夫：我们已经在链上，带着共识协议运⾏Rholang。
Greg: Great question! Tomislav should tell you about last finalized state. He brought this feature to completion on mainnet. And he and Nutzipper are currently working on block merge. LFS is crucial for a scalable blockchain. Imagine if 1000X people used BTC and/or Ethereum how much storage would be required to store the chain all the way back to genesis. And it would only keep growing! The only parties that would be able to run full nodes would be those with the resources to run massive storage systems. Thus centralizing the chains into the hands of a few players. With LFS you can safely forget state prior to the last finalized state.
Thus, the storage capacity necessary for new nodes joining the chain becomes reasonable and the chain can remain decentralized.
格格巫：好问题！Tomislav会介绍Last Finalized State（最终确认状态）。他在主⽹上完成 了这项特性。⽽他（Tomislav）和Nutzipper⽬前正在进⾏块合并⼯作。LFS对区块链可扩展 ⾄关重要。想象⼀下，如果有1000倍的⼈使⽤BTC和/或ETH，需要多少存储空间才能将区块 链从创世块⼀直存储到现在？⽽且这个数据量会⼀直增⻓！唯⼀能够运⾏完整节点的将是那些 拥有运⾏⼤规模存储系统资源的⼈。这样⼀来，区块链就掌握在少数玩家⼿中了。有了LFS， 你可以安全地忘记最后⼀个LFS（最终确定状态）之前的状态。因此，加⼊区块链的新节点所 需的存储容量变得合理，区块链可以保持去中⼼化。
Tomislav: Yes, this is a major feature which enables node to start verifying blockchain state from last finalized block. This means that we don’t need to download whole history from the first genesis block. Next release with block-merge will enable parallel production of blocks which state can be combined without sequencing all transactions.
托⽶斯拉夫：是的，这是⼀个重要的功能，使节点能够从最后完成的区块开始验证区块链状 态。这意味着我们不需要从第⼀个创世块下载整个历史。下⼀个带有块合并的版本将实现区块 的并发出块，这些区块的状态可以在不对所有事务进⾏排序的情况下进⾏合并。
Atticbee: This is the DAG diagram of block merging, does it have the feeling of violent aesthetics? Block merging is RChain’s unique secret technique, which is related to RChain’s Rho Calculus.
Greg: Tomislav, do you want to say more about block merge?
Tomislav: Yes, I can add some of the details we needed to do to accomplish this. Because of Rholang concurrency, the execution can be split in different branches, unlike in mainstream languages where all transactions are sequential. So with block-merge release we are comparing executed deploys in multiple blocks and because of channels used in Rholang, we can find conflicts. What is not conflicting can be merged in a new state on the blockchain and new blocks can be produced on top of it.
托⽶斯拉夫：是的，我可以补充⼀些细节，我们需要做完这些细节来完成这项⼯作。由于 Rholang的并发性，执⾏可以分成不同的分⽀，⽽不像主流语⾔那样所有事务都是顺序的。因 此，块合并发布后，我们可以⽐较了多个区块中已执⾏的部署，因为Rholang中使⽤了通道， 我们可以发现（交易中）的冲突。不冲突的（部署）可以在区块链上合并成⼀个新的状态，新 的区块可以在其上产⽣。这就是为什么可以从（块合并）中提⾼性能的主要原因。
Atticbee: To understand block merging you can take a look at this diagram. When the node comes out of block 4, it has to make sure that blocks 1, 2 and 3 do not conflict, so block 4 can be safely mounted behind 1, 2 and 3.
Greg: Thus, with rholang’s concurrency a node can take advantage of concurrent processing on the server where it is running *and* the network can take advantage of the concurrency of multiple nodes running in a network. So, RChain scales both vertically and horizontally. There are many other features that all fit together to make RChain a decentralized global world computer. But, perhaps we should move on to the next question.
格格巫：因此，通过Rholang的并发性，⼀个节点可以利⽤它所运⾏的服务器上的并发处理， 并且，⽹络可以利⽤⽹络中运⾏的多个节点的并发性。因此，RChain在垂直和⽔平两个⽅向 都可以进⾏扩展。还有许多其他的特性，它们都配合在⼀起，使RChain成为⼀个去中⼼化的 全球世界计算机。但是，也许我们应该进⼊下⼀个问题。
Atticbee: Simply put, you add nodes with CPU’s cores, which also allow higher TPS (vertical scaling), and you add more nodes within the slice, which also allow higher TPS (horizontal scaling).
Shixi: A lot of people are concerned about when we will deploy block merging on the mainnet. Does it face technical difficulties? What does the technical implementation of the block merger mean for the development of the blockchain industry?
Greg: Block merge is moving very rapidly. But we want to test it carefully in stages. There is a step in the process that means the version with block merge cannot be backwards compatible. So, we are making a separate test net to test this feature. It will require a hard fork to go to mainnet. We want to demonstrate the numbers on the new TestNet before the hard fork.
格格巫：块合并的进展⾮常迅速。但我们希望分阶段仔细测试。在这个过程中，有⼀个步骤意 味着带有块合并的版本不能向后兼容。因此，我们正在⼀个单独的测试⽹上来测试这个功能。 因此，我们正在⼀个单独的测试⽹上来测试这个功能。它将需要⼀个硬分叉才能部署到主⽹。 我们想在硬分叉之前在新的测试⽹上展示这些（性能）数字。
Tomislav: From development perspective, we are in testing phase and with one bug in detecting conflicts to resolve. As part of block-merge changes we also made some additional changes to make future development more economic. Together with block merge we are looking for performance improvement which we will release in steps.
托⽶斯拉夫：从开发的⻆度来看，我们正处于测试阶段，还有⼀个冲突检测的bug需要解决。 作为块合并的⼀部分，我们还做了⼀些额外的改变，以使未来的开发更加便利。与块合并⼀起 进⾏的，还有很多别的性能改进，我们将分步发布。
Shixi: Hey, Tomislav! We all know that you are one of our best developers. You are also RChain's right hand man. Can you tell everyone how long you`ve been at RChain? What attracted you to stay here?
光之⼗⼀：您好，Tomislav！我们都知道您是我们最优秀的开发⼈员之⼀, 您也是RChain的 左膀右臂。您可以告诉⼤家您在RChain多久了吗？是什么吸引您留在这⾥？
Tomislav: I’m very grateful to be in this position and have opportunity to learn from the master of computation – Greg. Although I joined officially to RChain core team just before the release of main net, I was following Greg from the middle of 2015. Around 2010 I was developing projects where part of the code was stored inside the database. In the same time I was searching for “the right” graph database to store dynamically generated schema. To bind these two things together, the use of reflection in a programming language was extremely important to me.
托⽶斯拉夫：我⾮常感谢能在这个位置上，有机会向计算机科学⼤师——Greg学习。虽然我 是在主⽹发布前才正式加⼊RChain核⼼团队的，但我从2015年中期就开始关注Greg。2010 年左右，我正在开发⼀些项⽬，其中部分代码被存储在数据库中。同时，我也在寻找 “正确的 “图形数据库来存储动态⽣成的模式。为了将这两件事结合起来，在编程语⾔中使⽤反射对我 来说是⾮常重要的。
Tomislav: Yes, 2015 Greg joined Synereo and was working on SpecialK. Now I regret a little that I wasn’t more persistent to join the team earlier. I was following dev meetings in Boulder from my hotel room 🙂
托⽶斯拉夫：是的，2015年Greg加⼊Synereo，并致⼒于SpecialK。现在我有点后悔当初没 有更坚持地早点加⼊这个团队。当时我正在博尔德的酒店房间参加开发会议 🙂
Greg: People should understand that in a company like Amazon or Google or Microsoft a feature like this would require 5 – 10X the number of engineers and a full year to roll out. So, from that perspective two engineers taking two quarters is blazingly fast. Tomislav himself is master! His care and attention to quality is an inspiration for the team and the industry.
合并）是快得惊⼈的。Tomislav本⼈就是⼤师! 他对程序质量的关⼼和专注是对团队和⾏业的 ⼀种⿎励。
Tomislav: Oh, yes. It was very extensive changes in almost every aspect of RNode. Also Will was helping us with each step. Thanks Greg this means a lot to me when you say it! When I heard Greg talk about Rho-calculus, with much deeper understanding on all of these topics, it was obvious to me that he is in the forefront of the new programming era, which I certainly don’t want to miss. Now, I’m even more convinced that his idea and solutions are necessary for the future.
托⽶斯拉夫：哦，是的。这是⾮常⼤的改写，⼏乎在RNode的每个⽅⾯。同时，Will（中国开 发）也在帮助我们完成每⼀步。如此感谢Greg，这对我来说意义重⼤。当我听到Greg谈论 Rho演算时，我对所有这些话题有了更深刻的理解，对我来说，很明显，他处于新的编程时代 的最前沿，我当然不想错过。现在，我更加确信他的想法和解决⽅案对未来是必要的。
Atticbee: As a side note on “reflection”, RChain’s Rho Calculus is a reflection mechanism added to the Pi Calculus, the de facto standard in distributed computing theory, whose founder, Robin Milner, won a Turing Award.
莫给机狂：补充⼀点关于“反射”。RChain的Rho演算是在Pi演算上加上了反射机制。Pi演算 是分布式计算理论⽅⾯的事实标准，创始⼈Robin Milner拿了图灵奖。�� Pi演算电⼦书.pdf
Shixi: Steve Ross, chief student of Pi Calculus founder Robin Milner, is also on our team, and he is a member of our board of directors, second in command.
光之⼗⼀：Pi演算创始⼈Robin Milner的⾸席⼤弟⼦Steve Ross也在我们的团队，他是我们 的董事会成员，⼆当家。
Shixi: Tomislav, we are curious assuming the performance optimization gets satisfactory results, what feature or improvement would you most like to do next?
Tomislav: What Greg said I’m very critical and pasionate about the code. So I must say that I’m not satisfied with the current state of the code base. Of course developing a new language is complex, no doubt about that, but we are still resolving some parts that are just reinventing the wheel. So the first goal is to make development of new features much faster and less cross depenedent. What I’d like is to start with behavioral type system implementation immediately.
托⽶斯拉夫：就如Greg说的⼀样，我对代码⾮常挑剔和热情。所以我必须说，我对RChain代 码库的现状不满意。当然，开发⼀种新的语⾔是很复杂的，这⼀点毋庸置疑，但我们仍在解决 ⼀些只是重新发明⻋轮的部分。因此，第⼀个⽬标是使新功能的开发更敏捷，更少的交叉依 赖。我想要的是⽴即开始实施⾏为类型系统。
Greg: Yes, I agree wholeheartedly. Without behavioral types, as the throughput of the network increases bugs introduced by user defined smart contracts are more and more serious. Imagine the damage of a bug like the DAO bug if Ethereum were running at 40K TPS! With behavioral types many concurrency and security bugs introduced by user defined smart contracts will be caught at compile time.
格格巫：是的，我完全同意。如果没有⾏为类型系统的话，随着⽹络吞吐量的增加，⽤户写的 智能合约引⼊的错误会越来越严重。想象⼀下，如果以太坊以40,000 TPS的速度运⾏，像 DAO这样的bug们会有多⼤的危害？有了⾏为类型，许多由⽤户定义的智能合约引⼊的并发性 和安全性错误将在编译时被捕获。
Atticbee: For the formal verification part, see our introductory article: RChain’s Greatest Hits” (Click to Jump). I introduced the concept of “scalable formal verification”. Not only does the TPS need to be scalable, but the supporting formal verification needs to be scalable as well. That is, the workload cannot exponentially explode when you verify a contract and verify the interaction of a bunch of contracts.
莫给机狂：对于形式验证部分，可以看我们的介绍⽂章：《RChain的乾坤⼤挪移》（点击跳 转）。我提出了“可扩展的形式验证”的概念。不光TPS要可扩展，配套的形式验证也需要能可 扩展才⾏。即你验证⼀个合约和验证⼀堆合约的交互，⼯作量不能指数爆炸。
Shixi: What are RChain’s greatest strengths in terms of the present and the future? 光之⼗⼀：从当下和未来来说，RChain最⼤的优势是什么？
Greg: Without a doubt RChain’s greatest strength is its community. Together we have shown we can face serious difficulties and come out stronger.
Tomislav: From development perspective, Greg’s provided us with solutions so for us developers job is really to listen and implement it with current best practices.
Greg: Tomislav is too modest!
Tomislav: I’m overwhelmed by community support. 🙂
Greg: The development team is fully participatory and we operate as a round table. Every voice is heard and we know that with patience and diligence we get a better quality offering. One other vital point: the mathematical basis of RChain makes for better decentralization. No one has to trust us. They can check the math for themselves. We fully expect the next generation to see much farther than we do and the math will facilitate that inter generational dialogue.
格格巫：开发团队参与性⾮常之⾼，我们以圆桌会议的形式运作。每个⼈的声⾳都能被听到， 我们知道，只要有耐⼼和勤奋，我们就能得到更⾼质量的产品。还有⼀个重要的观点： RChain的数学基础使其具有更好的去中⼼化。没有⼈必须相信我们。他们可以⾃⼰检查计算 结果。我们完全期待下⼀代⽐我们看得更远，数学将促进这种代际对话。
Shixi: How long does it take for sharding to come out? What is the difference between our sharding and what other public chains are doing?
Greg: Great question! We already have much of the sharding solution coded. Mike Stay did that work. At current resourcing i would estimate about two quarters. For the basic sharding features. Rao might argue with me on those numbers so take them with a grain of salt. What makes our sharding solution particles unique is that sharding in RChain is not just a way to integrate sub-RChain networks, but also a way to integrate other chains. Ethereum can be mounted as a subnetwork (shard) of RChain. Tezos, Polkadot, … all of them can be mounted as shards. Then rholang becomes the coordinator amongst these chains. This is how RChain provides sharding and an Internet of chains with the same feature.
格格巫：好问题！我们已经有了⼤部分的分⽚解决⽅案的代码。Mike Stay做了那部分的⼯ 作。按照⽬前的资源配置，我估计⼤约两个季度可以完成基本的分⽚功能。Rao（项⽬经理） 可能会与我争论这个数字，所以要慎重考虑。我们的分⽚解决⽅案的独特之处在于，RChain 中的分⽚不仅仅是⼀种整合RChain的⼦⽹络的⽅式，也是⼀种整合其他链的⽅式。以太坊可 以作为RChain的⼀个⼦⽹络（分⽚）被挂载。Tezos，Polkadot，……都可以作为分⽚挂 载。然后Rholang会成为这些链之间的协调者。这就是RChain如何提供分⽚，以及提供“区块 链之间的互联⽹”。
Atticbee: It means “all chains in one”.
Tomislav: We have different ways to implement sharding, so from development perspective we want to be ready to start working on it as soon as possible. I think we want to support external validators before sharding. I think we can implement cross chains without relay part.
托⽶斯拉夫：我们有不同的⽅法来实现分⽚，所以从开发的⻆度来看，我们希望能尽快准备好 开始⼯作。我认为我们希望在分⽚之前⽀持外部验证器。我认为我们可以不需要中继链来实现 跨链。
Shixi: We all know that RVote can play an important role in elections. Is it possible for RChain to have deep cooperation with government departments in the future?
Greg: Such an important question! This is our hope and why we have focused so much on compliance. We want to be in the best possible position for collaborating with existing regulatory institutions.
Tomislav: From my experience, developing core parts in a major government software projects here in Croatia, I see use of RChain technology in many areas like social service. We are changing our view towards work, engagement with the state and management of the environment. RChain as a technology can be a solid ground to move us humans to the next level of cooperation beyond government to-government in a direction of people-to-people.
托⽶斯拉夫：根据我在克罗地亚的⼀个主要政府软件项⽬中开发核⼼部分的经验，我看到 RChain技术在社会服务等许多领域的应⽤。我们正在改变我们对⼯作的看法，与国家的接触 和对环境的管理。RChain作为⼀种技术，可以成为⼀个坚实的基础，使我们⼈类超越政府与 政府之间的合作，向⼈与⼈之间的⽅向发展。
Shixi: It is worth mentioning that we have joined the Climate Chain Coalition by the United Nations.
光之⼗⼀：值得⼀提的是，我们加⼊了联合国宣布成⽴的“⽓候链联盟”（Climate Chain Coalition）。
Shixi: What are some of the wonderful dApps RChain currently has to share? 光之⼗⼀：RChain⽬前有哪些精彩的dApps可以分享？
Greg: Yesterday we saw a wonderful demo of Liquid Democracy. That moved RVote to RGov. We also have the COVID passport that is rapidly expanding to a self sovereign identity and data solution.
Atticbee: “Liquid Democracy” is a dApp created by Jim and Dan in the community. 莫给机狂：“流动性⺠主”是社区⾥Jim、Dan搞得⼀个dApp。
Shixi: Gov means Government.
Tomislav: My favorite is Dappy (Click to Jump) build by Raphael who is also very engaged in writing Rholang. We need more dApps which can be much simpler then Dappy. We are preparing much smother API (protocol) developers to engage with RNode.
托⽶斯拉夫：我最喜欢的是由Raphael建⽴的Dappy（点击跳转），他也⾮常致⼒于编写 Rholang。我们需要更多的dApps，它们可以⽐Dappy简单得多。我们正在准备让API（协 议）开发者更多的参与到RNode中来。
Greg: I agree Dappy is very exciting.
Shixi: What is RChain’s technical focus now and in the future?
Greg: Our main focus now is external Validators. We want to clear all the technical hurdles so that it is very easy and cost effective for anyone to run a full node. This ensures the robustness of a decentralized network. This also solves many regulatory issues. We also want to clear away economic hurdles for dApp adoption. Blockchain dApps face a friction that Web 2.0 Apps do not: payment for all interaction involving the backend. It is possible to bring sponsored content to dApps across the platform. This is important because— believe it or not — sponsored content on Internet apps is the world’s largest economy, surpassing oil.
格格巫：我们现在的主要重点是外部验证器。我们希望清除所有的技术障碍，以便任何⼈都能 ⾮常容易和经济地运⾏⼀个完整的节点。这确保了去中⼼化⽹络的稳健性。这也解决了许多监 管问题。我们还希望为dApp的采⽤扫除经济障碍。区块链dApps⾯临着Web 2.0应⽤程序没 有的交易成本：（⽤户）需要为所有涉及后台的互动付费（补充：指gas费）。有可能在整个 平台上为dApps带来赞助内容（补充：应该指⼴告内容让⽤户不⽤付gas费）。这很重要，因 为–不管你信不信–互联⽹应⽤程序上的赞助内容是世界上最⼤的经济体，超过了⽯油。
Tomislav: I have a wish, for Rholang to become concurrent language like Haskell in sequential world. Developing of a blockchain is far from end goal, I look forward for all nice things that OSLF will give us.
托⽶斯拉夫：我有⼀个愿望，希望Rholang像Haskell在顺序编程中的地位⼀样，成为并发编 程中的标准语⾔。开发区块链还远远不是最终⽬标，我期待着OSLF给我们带来的所有美好前 景。
Greg: Concomitant with this the expansion of behavioral types to OSLF opens up new search capabilities. This is extremely important.
格格巫：与此同时，从⾏为类型向OSLF的扩展开辟了新的搜索能⼒。这⾄关重要。 Shixi: What direction and where will RChain eventually go?
Greg: RChain is being developed in a really desperate race against time. We need a decentralized global computer now because climate change is now. In 2019 the whole continent of Australia was burning. In the next 10 years the tropical zones will be too hot to be viable for human life. That means 2.8B people will have to migrate. This is a bigger coordination problem than world governments can solve. We must have the technology to support new models of coordination for humanity.
格格巫：RChain是在⼀个真正绝望的与时间赛跑的过程中开发的。我们现在需要⼀个去中⼼ 化的全球计算机，因为⽓候变化的严峻问题迫在眉睫。在2019年，整个澳⼤利亚⼤陆都在燃 烧。在未来10年⾥，热带地区将变得太热，对⼈类⽣活来说是不可⾏的。这意味着28亿⼈将 不得不迁徙。这是⼀个⽐世界政府能够解决的更⼤的协调问题。我们必须有技术来⽀持⼈类的 新协调模式。
Tomislav: I’d like to see RChain technology as a replacement for big centralized cloud providers like Amazon or Azure. This does not mean we cannot have big data centers, but control can be in the hands of the people instead of big corporations. As a developer Rholang is solving important issues that we have now. Developers needs to understand many levels of programming stack, different languages and databases. In the future Rholang can make this much easier with provable type checking.
托⽶斯拉夫：我希望看到RChain技术成为亚⻢逊云或Azure等等诸如此类⼤型中⼼化的云服务 供应商的替代品。这并不意味着我们不能有⼤的数据中⼼，但问题是这些设施的控制权现在在 ⼤公司的⼈⼿中。作为⼀个开发者，Rholang正在解决我们现在的很多重要技术问题。现在开 发⼈员需要了解许多层的编程栈，不同的语⾔和数据库。⽽在未来，Rholang可以通过“可证 明的类型检查”使这些⼯作变得更加容易。
Shixi: More and more countries and governments, including celebrities, are actively involved in the fight against climate change. This is the latest release from Bill Gates that,
Greg: In honor of Earthday i would like to announce RChain’s celebration video: https://rchain.coop/climate。
Greg: There is an open TestNet. Rhobot net is a community TestNet. 格格巫：有个开放的测试⽹，Rhobot就是个社区的公开测试⽹。
Tomislav: We will do two hard forks to fix all issues on Proof of Stake contract. This is the bigger task for external validators to join the network.
Greg: Yes, after the 2nd hard fork the TestNet will be open. Until then there are several community TestNetd. The first hard fork is to clear out a slashed Validator. The second is to fix some issues with the PoS contract and the channel map removal. We do offer bounties and rewards for participation.
格格巫：对，第⼆次硬分叉后测试⽹就会开放。那个时候之前，会有⼀些社区⾃发的测试⽹。 第⼀次硬分叉是为了清楚（因为作恶）被罚没代币的验证者。第⼆次硬分叉是修复PoS合同和 Channel Map删除的⼀些问题。我们确实提供赏⾦和参与奖励。
Tomislav: Yes, first hard fork is just to clear slashed validator and with the second we will introduce shard configuration and changes to system contracts like PoS or RevVault. For example history of REV transactions are going to be on-chain. This is also preparation for light clients which will be much simpler on RChain.
托⽶斯拉夫：是的，第⼀次硬分叉只是为了清除被砍掉的验证节点，第⼆次我们将引⼊分⽚配 置和系统合约的变化，如PoS或RevVault。例如，REV交易的历史将被放在链上。这也是为轻 客户做准备，在RChain上将会更简单。
Greg: Thanks to Shixi for organizing and Atticbee for translating and Tomislav for all his hard work. Thanks to everyone for inviting us to this wonderful forum. I wish I could stay longer but I have another meeting very soon. Be safe and take good care of each other!
格格巫：⾮常感谢光之⼗⼀的组织和莫给机狂的翻译和Tomislav的努⼒⼯作。⾮常感谢⼤家 邀请我们来到这个美好的AMA。我希望我可以呆得更久，但我很快就有另⼀个会议。注意安 全，请互相照顾好彼此！
Tomislav: Thanks everyone for questions, it was a pleasure to be here today. 托⽶斯拉夫：⾮常感谢⼤家的提问，今天很⾼兴来到这⾥。 四书：谢谢。⼤@家族与⽇链有缘，也是群友的福⽓，期待⽇链蓬勃发展，成为未来区块链⾏ 业的微软。@Lucius Gregory Meredith@Tomislav Grospić @�� 光之⼗⼀༆Exploring @莫给机狂 @请叫我⽇链⼩精灵